In the article, the surface and the internal structures of the lungs are explained and illustrated, as well as their topographic relations. The courses of the parietal pleura, pleural recesses and the pulmonary ligament are described in detail. Dual blood supply of the lungs, i.e. the pulmonary (functional) and bronchial (nutritive) blood vessels, lymphatic drainage and nerve supply of the lungs and the pleura are also described. The anatomical descriptions are accompanied by some short clinical notes.