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Artificial ventilation means that the air is forced artificially – by apparatus (ventilator) – into the lungs of the patient who is unable to breathe for himself due to his illness. In this way in patient with chronic alveolar hypoventilation the pressures of arterial blood gases are improved or normalised. There are two ways of artificial ventilation, either by positive or negative pressure. Artificial ventilation by positive pressure is preferred. There are two ways of artificial ventilation by positive pressure, the noninvasive with nasal mask or mouthpiece and the invasive one through a tracheostomy. As many patients as possible should be ventilated noninvasively. At present in Slovenia the problem of artificial ventilation is unadequately solved, therefore a systematic approach is needed.