The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to exercise. During exercise, oxygen uptake increases to meet increased energy consumption. Central command, baroreflex with its resetting, exercise pressor reflex, central thermo reflex and other reflexes are important in determining the cardiovascular response to exercise in order to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with its consumption. The interplay of decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activity during graded exercise succeeds to adjust the cardiovascular function to increased metabolic demand. Heart rate variability analysis and heart rate recovery after exercise could be used to determine the activation of autonomic nervous system during and after exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective effects of chronic exercise training have positive impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, regular long-term exercise can be used therapeutically to treat autonomic disorders. For healthy adults, the World Health Organization recommends moderate-intensity exercise of at least 30 minutes 5 days per week.