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Wounds, either traumatic or as a consequence of disease, are among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide regardless of age. As a result of population aging, the number of patients suffering from chronic wounds of various etiologies is on an increase as well. Important risk factors for chronic wounds include peripheral occlusive artery disease, diabetes mellitus and neoplastic diseases. Wounds heal in an orderly sequence through several phases: phase of inflammation, proliferative phase, and maturation phase. Chronic wounds, however, do not heal in such manner: separate healing phases do not terminate, inflammation is prolonged, and wounds show a diminished proliferative activity. Clinical management of chronic wounds requires various surgical interventions and use of modern wound dressings. Due to recent research and new treatment modalities in this field, appropriate choice of methods is necessary for faster recovery of patients and cost-efficiency of treatment.