Neurological lesions and disorders manifest as nervous system hyper- or hypoactivity. This involves symptoms which are described by the patient in the history. On the basis of symptoms – and allowing for other patient’s characteristics – is formulated a working hypothesis to guide the clinical examination. A logically structured neurological examination reveals neurological signs and enables evaluation of the working hypothesis. It should lead to the diagnosis of a particular neurological syndrome and allow decisions regarding the diagnostics necessary to further define the neurological condition.