Fractures of the calcaneus are rare but rather demanding to treat. There is lack of agreement regarding the treatment of these injuries. The available therapeutic modalities include conservative management by functional method, immobilization or closed reduction and transcutaneous pinning. Displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus can be managed only surgically. The article reviews the mechanisms of fractures of the calcaneus and presents diagnosis and rational selection of proper therapy required by the type of the fracture.