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Interventional radiology is a part of radiology that uses diagnostic radiologic methodsto guide minimally invasive treatment procedures. The article describes the development of interventional radiology that emerged from diagnostic radiology as a consequence of its creative and fast development in the field of image resolution, the speed of image display, computerised data analysis and display of three-dimensional anatomy. The role of modern radiologist, actively included in the treatment procedure, is also shown. In addition to good knowledge of diagnostic radiology and skilled performance of interventional procedures, interventional radiologist also needs proper clinical knowledge and skills to decide or co-decide on the appropriate treatment and follow-up method. Only in this way, a competent cooperation with doctors of other clinical professions can be achived to guide and solve complex clinical problems. The article also shows patient preparation for the procedure, which includes explanation of the procedure, the expected outcome, possible complications and their management, all of which is necessary for the patient’s written consent. In addition to being calm and free of pain, it is important the patient cooperates sufficiently during the procedure. The majority of procedures are performed under local anesthesia and sometimes moderate sedation. The conditions for procedure performance and principles of endovascular and non-vascular procedures are presented.