Most women of reproductive age experience some psychological and physical symptoms during the final premenstrual and the initial days of the menstrual cycle. Common complaints include depressed mood, anxiety, irritability, lack of energy, difficulties with concentration, breast tenderness, and bloating. When the symptoms are mild, this is called premenstrual syndrome, while a more severe form of this condition which causes a substantial degree of functional impairment is called premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The paper presents various theories on the etiology and pathophysiology of these entities, along with different treatment options. Current treatments target the serotonergic system or the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis. In Europe, premenstrual syndrome is not treated with drugs. However, doctors in the United States of America, Canada and Australia have reported good results in treating premenstrual disorders with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Other treatment options are available as well, but evidence of their effectiveness is lacking. With this article, the authors wish to stimulate a debate in Slovene medical circles, so that in the future premenstrual disorders would get the attention they deserve.