We are introducing pain as a very personal sensation, which is very difficult to define precisely due to its multidimensional nature. Not solely the biological side of sensation, but also the psychological principles, social circumstances, social and economic conditions, and other characteristics were considered for a complete understanding of pain. In medicine it is known as a symptom, syndrome and disease entity. It would be reasonable to place it among life signs as it also acts as a warning and preventive tool. To understand pain, good knowledge of neurophysiological events, dependent on neuroanatomical features as well as parallel and sequential neuropsychological processes, is necessary. Pain is the consequence of sensation, perception and recognition. Explaining events poses a major challenge. One-dimensional thinking did not provide a comprehensive answer on all aspects of pain, nor did the theory of specific modalities or the pattern theory. Psychogenic, motivational and conditional views of psychologists also failed to capture different aspects of pain. The gate theory does consider descendent influence on afferent impulses, yet does not cover others, which are also important in maintaining homeostasis. It was only the neuromatrix theory that has enabled the interpretation of plasticity, the changes with which the body responds to alterations in external and/or internal environment. The integration of knowledge with the latest discoveries allows for successful management of events, known as an unpleasant and threatening sensation – pain.