Temporal bone contains several cavities: the external auditory meatus, the middle ear, the inner ear and internal auditory meatus. Modern imaging technology enables scanning of the temporal bone and its pathology changes in detail. High resolution computed tomography is the method of choice for conductive hearing loss and examination of external or middle ear, while magnetic resonance imaging plays a major role in sensorineural hearing loss and examination of inner ear. The temporal bone could be affected by congenital malformations, inflammation, trauma, tumors and otosclerosis. Computed tomography is used for detection of malformations. Small cavities, narrow external lumen and deformed ossicles can be found. The cholesteatoma and inflammatory changes of temporal bone are also best presented by this imaging method. However, the inflammation of adjacent tissues and inner ear inflammation are best presented with magnetic resonance after gadolinium contrast injection. Computed tomography is the method of choice for otosclerosis. Furthermore, it is the first obtained imaging, when trauma to temporal bone happens. On the other hand, posttraumatic facial nerve palsy is best detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Due to their origin diversity, both methods, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are used for tumors evaluation.