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Commonly used metallic osteosynthetic materials include titanium alloys, stainless steels and cobalt-chromium-based alloys. As a result of high modulus of elasticity of metal implants versus bone, the implant compensates a large part of the mechanical stresses applied to the bone, which leads to bone resorption. A second operation is often necessary to remove the implants. Scientists developed new materials, which are degraded in vivo after a fracture is healed. Potential candidates for biodegradable implants are: magnesium alloys, calcium phosphate ceramics and polymers. Besides their biodegradability, their additional advantage is lower modulus of elasticity. New materials also cause less interference at magnetic resonance imaging. According to research, fixation and fracture healing as well as functional outcome and complication rate shall be approximately comparable to titanium. Degradable implants are more expensive, therefore cost/benefit ratio is strongly influenced by the removal rate of metallic implants. Currently, there is lack of clinical research trials which would unambiguously show the fate of biodegradable osteosynthetic material for fracture treatment. Biodegradable interference screws for operative treatment of ruptured cruciate ligaments, which are currently most used biodegradable implants, need further improvement as well.