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Throughout the history of mankind, epidemics and pandemics were the cause of most deaths; this is why they have always occupied an important place in the society and its health system. Their disastrous demographic, economic, social, psychological and other consequences have led to a search of the causes and possible social and medical solutions for them. One of the most successful early measures was the quarantine, introduced for the first time in Dubrovnik in 1377. Since the microbiological era, when bacterial, viral and other agents were discovered, professional foundations have been set for a rational antiepidemic strategy with its guidelines and measures, and above all vaccination. At first, the health section of the League of Nations was responsible for the public health strategy of prevention and fight against epidemic diseases at an international level, whereas after World War II, World Health Organization took over. Trade associations were also very supportive, organizing international sanitary conferences since the mid-19th century in order to prevent economic damage, caused by epidemics.