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By means of the matched pair method the difference in the frequency of the risk factor between a group of 46 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease and a group of 54 examinees without peripheral arterial occlusive disease was tested. In the group with peripheral arterial occlusive disease significantly greater number of diabetics, smokers, physically inactive persons as well as persons with hyperlipemia (P<0.05) was found. The results of the measures to change risk profile of the group with peripheral arterial occlusive disease have been observed. Rather simple preventive measures are therefore possible. General measures are designed for the entire population and aimed at teaching the principles of a healthy life style including balanced diet, non smoking, and regular exercise. Specific preventive measures, which include screening for high risk individuals, assessment of risk, elimination of risk factors proper treatment are the responsibility of the primary health care team.