Traumatic injury of the axillary artery or its branches with distal embolization to the hand arteries is a rare finding, which is found in volleyball, baseball, tennis and handball players. The main mechanism for developing this vascular injury with local thrombosis (traumatic aneurysm) is a specific motion sequence of the shoulder seen during athletes’ activity (hyperabduction and external rotation of the upper extremity in conjunction with powerful forces and vibration). Local thrombosis represents a risk for distal embolization leading to hand ischemia; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent it. In this case report, we present a 34-year-old amateur volleyball player with a critical right upper extremity ischemia. A CT angiography of the dominant right arm revealed an occlusion of the posterior circumflex humeral artery. Furthermore, a significant stenosis of the radial artery and occlusion of the ulnar artery was found distal to the cubital area. Two surgical procedures were performed. Firstly, embolectomy of the radial artery was performed, allowing the patient’s symptoms to subside, followed by exploration of the axillary artery, during which the thrombotic posterior circumflex humeral artery aneurysm was found and excised. The latter has caused distal thromboembolic events in the radial and ulnar arteries.