Prevalence and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders increases with age due to repetitive load and degenerative changes. However, they are becoming more common even at a young age. In children, one of the ergonomic risk factors for developing pain is the use of school bag. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the scientific evidence on the possible association between the use of school bag and prevalence of pain in school-aged children and to determine what are current evidence-based recommendations concerning its weight. The results of the reviewed studies do not unambiguously show the impact of use of school bag on the emergence of pain, as some studies confirm it and others do not. One of the reasons for this is the prevalence of cross-disciplinary research, the ambiguity of some of the studied concepts, particularly the notion of pain, and the methodology used. The authors of future research on possible association between the use of school bag and the emergence of pain in children will have to take into account the concerns related to the design, methodology, definition of concepts, and methods of measurement in current studies. At the same time, the necessity for addressing the problem in a broader, biopsychosocial context is imperative.