Almost half of the musicians are confronted with playing-related health problems. The characteristics of an individual performer and the type of musical instrument played determine the musician’s health problems. These are mainly musculosceletal (»overuse syndrome«), neurologic (entrapement neuropathies, focal dystonias), dermatologic, otolaryngologic and psychologic disorders. Other possible health problems are dental, cardiovascular, respiratory and ophtalmic. Although these health problems aren’t life-threatening illnesses, they can be devastating to musicians physically, emotionally, socially, and financially. Therefore it is important to raise the awareness of musicians and doctors of playing-related health problems and to take measures before these health problems even emerge.