Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare form of spontaneous pneumothorax that repeatedly occurs in women of reproductive age. The exact epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease are not completely known. Videothoracoscopy is the diagnostic modality of choice and also offers therapeutic possibilities. The use of this method in combination with hormonal treatment is currently the most effective therapy. Different varieties of pneumothoraces are presented as well as their diagnosis and treatment with special emphasis on catamenial pneumothorax. Furthermore, we present three patients treated at the Department of thoracic surgery at the University medical centre Ljubljana in the last five years. The purpose of this article is to remind medical students, emergency and intensive care physicians, pneumologists, gynaecologists and other medical professionals of this rare disease, which primarily affects young, fertile women. Appropriate recognition and treatment of this disease can markedly lower its recurrence rate.