Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the uterus. The definitive treatment in symptomatic patients is most often surgical either by myomectomy or by hysterectomy. Depending on the type and number of leiomyomas myomectomy can be performed hysteroscopically, laparoscopically or by laparotomy. Similarly, hysterectomy can be performed vaginally, laparoscopically or by laparotomy. Another option is uterine artery embolization. Complications of surgical treatment of leiomyomas depend on the type of surgery. The most common complications include damage to the uterus, neighbouring organs or adjacent tissues, pain, bleeding, infections of the surgical field, scar hernias, wound dehiscence and other general surgical complications. An important complication of laparoscopic morcellation of myomas that turn out to be sarcomas is the spread of malignant cells in the abdominal cavity which can decrease the survival of these patients.