The development of the spinal cord vascular system, vasculogenesis and later on angiogenesis, is influenced by various factors. The developmental process of arterial and venous system of the spinal cord begins in the fourth week. The spinal cord vascularization begins as a capillary network which is more numerous in the grey matter due to increased metabolic needs as in the white matter. On the surface of the spinal cord 31 paired segmental arteries originating from the dorsal aorta branch into rich capillary plexuses. The capillaries form through anastomoses two longitudinal systems, the anterior and the posterior one, from which the anterior spinal artery and two posterior spinal arteries are established. During the development the reduction in the number of paired segmental arteries as well as radicular arteries which branch from preceding is seen. The cardinal vein represents the origin of the spinal cord venous system in which paired intersegmental arteries from the paravertebral plexuses around the spine are drained into. On the ventral and dorsal end of the spinal cord two longitudinal systems develop, the anterior and posterior spinal vein, that anastomose with the radicular veins of the epidural space. The vascular pattern that resembles those seen in adults is layed down at the end of the third embryonal month.