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Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is defined as reversible narrowing of distal airways that follows vigorous exercise in the presence or absence of clinically recognised asthma. The prevalence in general population is 7–20%, in athletes even higher, around 50%. Water depletion at the level of airways is a reaction to increased minute ventilation and represents a stimulus to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. There are two theories seeking to explain exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: thermal and osmotic. In the laboratory conditions, the establishment of the diagnosis can be difficult. The type of protocol used for diagnosis must consider mechanistic factors for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. To elicit dehydration of the airway surface liquid and to cause a transient increase in its osmolarity, the rate of water loss must exceed the rate of return in the first 10 generations of airways. In general, the drier the inspired air and the higher the ventilation sustained during exercise, the less likely a false negative test result will occur. There are two forms of bronchoprovocation: direct and indirect. They differ with respect to basic mechanisms of inducing bronchoprovocation. The management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction should include both prevention and treatment directed toward the underlying asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Among the nonfarmacological components of treatment, high intensity warm up is recommended.